The results? Something approaching a consensus among psychologists expert in measurement , known as psychometricians or, less technically, as personality psychologists. The latter happens to be my field, in addition to clinical psychology. Once a relatively standard model had been established, and been deemed reliable and valid, then differences, such as those between the sexes, could be investigated. What emerged? First, men and women are more similar than they are different. This is true, cross-culturally.
Even when men and women are most different —in those cultures where they differ most, and along those trait dimensions where they differ most — they are more similar than different. However, the differences that do exist are large enough so that they play an importance role in determining or at least affecting important life outcomes, such as occupational choice.
Where are the largest differences? Men are less agreeable more competitive, harsher, tough-minded, skeptical, unsympathetic, critically-minded, independent, stubborn. Women are higher in negative emotion, or neuroticism. They experience more anxiety, emotional pain, frustration, grief, self-conscious doubt and disappointment something in keeping with their proclivity to experience depression at twice the rate of men.
These differences appear to emerge at puberty. This is the largest psychological difference between men and women yet identified. And these differences drive occupational choice, particularly at the extremes. Engineers, for example, tend to be those who are not only interested in things, but who are more interested in things than most people, men or women. But if you walked into a roomful of people everyone of whom had been selected to be the most aggressive person out of a almost every one of them would be male.
So even though men and women are more the same than they are different, the differences can matter. What happens if you look at sex differences in personality and interest by country?
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Are the differences bigger in some countries and smaller in others? Would the differences between men and women be larger or smaller in wealthier countries? In more egalitarian countries? The answer: the more egalitarian and wealthier the country, the larger the differences between men and women in temperament and in interest. And the relationship is not small.
The study also found that men are less adept at distinguishing among shades in the center of the color spectrum: blues, greens, and yellows. Where the men shone was in detecting quick-changing details from afar, particularly by better tracking the thinner, faster-flashing bars within a bank of blinking lights. The team puts this advantage down to neuron development in the visual cortex, which is boosted by masculine hormones.
Since males are flush with testosterone, in particular, they're born with 25 percent more neurons in this brain region than females, the team noted. The vision findings support the so-called hunter-gatherer hypothesis, which argues that the sexes evolved distinct psychological abilities to fit their prehistoric roles, the team says. Noting that men in the study showed "significantly greater sensitivity for fine detail and for rapidly moving stimuli," the researchers write that their hunter forebears "would have to detect possible predators or prey from afar and also identify and categorize these objects more easily.
Meanwhile, the vision of female "gatherers" may have become better adapted recognizing close-at-hand, static objects such as wild berries. UNFPA states that countries have an obligation to protect women's right to health, but many countries do not do that. Adolescent girls have the highest risk of sexual coercion, sexual ill health, and negative reproductive outcomes. The risks they face are higher than those of boys and men; this increased risk is partly due to gender inequity different socialization of boys and girls, gender based violence, child marriage and partly due to biological factors.
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Family planning is the practice of freely deciding the number of children one has and the intervals between their births, particularly by means of contraception or voluntary sterilization. Abortion is the induced termination of pregnancy. Abortion laws vary significantly by country.
The availability of contraception, sterilization and abortion is dependent on laws, as well as social, cultural and religious norms. Some countries have liberal laws regarding these issues, but in practice it is very difficult to access such services due to doctors, pharmacists and other social and medical workers being conscientious objectors. Family planning is often opposed by governments who have strong natalist policies. During the 20th century, such examples have included the aggressive natalist policies from communist Romania and communist Albania.
State mandated forced marriage was also practiced by some authoritarian governments as a way to meet population targets: the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia systematically forced people into marriages, in order to increase the population and continue the revolution. Some governments have sought to prevent certain ethnic or social groups from reproduction. Such policies were carried out against ethnic minorities in Europe and North America in the 20th century, and more recently in Latin America against the Indigenous population in the s; in Peru , President Alberto Fujimori in office from to has been accused of genocide and crimes against humanity as a result of a sterilization program put in place by his administration targeting indigenous people mainly the Quechuas and the Aymaras.
Human rights organizations have expressed concern about the legal impunity of perpetrators of crimes against women, with such crimes being often ignored by authorities. Women are often, in law or in practice, unable to access legal institutions. UN Women has said that: "Too often, justice institutions, including the police and the courts, deny women justice". Young women are the main victims of such acts, although men can be affected. Son preference refers to a cultural preference for sons over daughters, and manifests itself through practices such as sex selective abortion; female infanticide; or abandonment, neglect or abuse of girl-children.
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Abuses regarding nutrition are taboos in regard to certain foods, which result in poor nutrition of women, and may endanger their health, especially if pregnant. The caste system in India which leads to untouchability the practice of ostracizing a group by segregating them from the mainstream society often interacts with gender discrimination, leading to a double discrimination faced by Dalit women.
Traditional customs regarding birth sometimes endanger the mothers. Births in parts of Africa are often attended by traditional birth attendants TBAs , who sometimes perform rituals that are dangerous to the health of the mother. In many societies, a difficult labour is believed to be a divine punishment for marital infidelity, and such women face abuse and are pressured to "confess" to the infidelity. Tribal traditions can be harmful to males; for instance, the Satere-Mawe tribe use bullet ants as an initiation rite. Men must wear gloves with hundreds of bullet ants woven in for ten minutes: the ants' stings cause severe pain and paralysis.
This experience must be completed twenty times for boys to be considered "warriors".
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Other harmful traditional practices include marriage by abduction , ritualized sexual slavery Devadasi , Trokosi , breast ironing and widow inheritance. It persists for many reasons. In some societies, for example, it is considered a rite of passage. In others, it is seen as a prerequisite for marriage.
In some communities — whether Christian, Jewish, Muslim — the practice may even be attributed to religious beliefs. An estimated million women and girls living today have undergone FGM in the 29 countries where data exist. Of these, about half live in Egypt and Ethiopia.
Early marriage, child marriage or forced marriage is prevalent in parts of Asia and Africa. The majority of victims seeking advice are female and aged between 18 and The UN Resolution on Child, Early and Forced Marriage calls for an end to the practice, and states that "Recognizing that child, early and forced marriage is a harmful practice that violates abuses, or impairs human rights and is linked to and perpetuates other harmful practices and human rights violations, that these violations have a disproportionately negative impact on women and girls [ Half were in Asia, one-fifth in Africa.
In the next decade This will rise to an average of Bride price also called bridewealth or bride token is money, property, or other form of wealth paid by a groom or his family to the parents of the bride. This custom often leads to women having reduced ability to control their fertility. For instance, in northern Ghana, the payment of bride price signifies a woman's requirement to bear children, and women using birth control face threats, violence and reprisals.
UN Women recommended its abolition, and stated that: "Legislation should [ The custom of bride price can also curtail the free movement of women: if a wife wants to leave her husband, he may demand back the bride price that he had paid to the woman's family; and the woman's family often cannot or does not want to pay it back, making it difficult for women to move out of violent husbands' homes.
Promoting gender equality is seen as an encouragement to greater economic prosperity. Gender discrimination often results in women obtaining low-wage jobs and being disproportionately affected by poverty, discrimination and exploitation. Gender biases also exist in product and service provision. Gender-based price discrimination involves companies selling almost identical units of the same product or service at comparatively different prices, as determined by the target market. Although the "pink tax" of different goods and services is not uniform, overall women pay more for commodities that result in visual evidence of feminine body image.
Since the s, social scientists as well as feminists have increasingly criticized gendered arrangements of work and care and the male breadwinner role. Policies are increasingly targeting men as fathers as a tool of changing gender relations. Western countries with a strong emphasis on women fulfilling the role of homemakers, rather than a professional role, include parts of German speaking Europe i.
A key issue towards insuring gender equality in the workplace is the respecting of maternity rights and reproductive rights of women. The degree to which women can participate in law and in practice in public life varies by culture and socioeconomic characteristics. Seclusion of women within the home was a common practice among the upper classes of many societies, and this still remains the case today in some societies.
Before the 20th century it was also common in parts of Southern Europe, such as much of Spain. Women's freedom of movement continues to be legally restricted in some parts of the world. This restriction is often due to marriage laws. States Parties shall accord to men and women the same rights with regard to the law relating to the movement of persons and the freedom to choose their residence and domicile.
In addition to laws, women's freedom of movement is also restricted by social and religious norms. In many parts of the world, girls' access to education is very restricted. In developing parts of the world women are often denied opportunities for education as girls and women face many obstacles. These include: early and forced marriages; early pregnancy; prejudice based on gender stereotypes at home, at school and in the community; violence on the way to school, or in and around schools; long distances to schools; vulnerability to the HIV epidemic; school fees, which often lead to parents sending only their sons to school; lack of gender sensitive approaches and materials in classrooms.
About two thirds of the world's illiterate adults are women. Lack of an education severely restricts a woman's access to information and opportunities. Conversely, increasing women's and girls' educational attainment benefits both individuals and future generations. Higher levels of women's education are strongly associated with lower infant mortality and lower fertility, as well as better outcomes for their children.
Women are underrepresented in most countries' National Parliaments.
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In some Western countries women have only recently obtained the right to vote. In , The legal and social treatment of married women has been often discussed as a political issue from the 19th century onwards. In the United States , a wife's legal subordination to her husband was fully ended by the case of Kirchberg v. Feenstra , U. There have been and sometimes continue to be unequal treatment of married women in various aspects of everyday life.
Girls today are three times more likely than boys to be non-heterosexual. Why?
For example, in Australia , until a husband had to authorize an application for an Australian passport for a married woman. Although dowry is today mainly associated with South Asia , the practice has been common until the midth century in parts of Southeast Europe. Laws regulating marriage and divorce continue to discriminate against women in many countries.
Two recent movements in countries with large Kurdish populations have implemented political gender equality. The mayorships of 2 metropolitan areas and 97 towns [ citation needed ] are led jointly by a man and a woman, both called co-mayors. Party offices are also led by a man and a woman. Local councils were formed, which also had to be co-presided over by a man and a woman together. However, in November the Turkish government cracked down on the HDP, jailing ten of its members of Parliament, including the party's male and female co-leaders.
Gender stereotypes arise from the socially approved roles of women and men in the private or public sphere, at home or in the workplace. In the household, women are typically seen as mother figures, which usually places them into a typical classification of being "supportive" or "nurturing". Women are expected to want to take on the role of a mother and take on primary responsibility for household needs.
Gender roles are usually centered on conceptions of femininity and masculinity , although there are exceptions and variations. The way women are represented in the media has been criticized as perpetuating negative gender stereotypes. The exploitation of women in mass media refers to the criticisms that are levied against the use or objectification of women in the mass media , when such use or portrayal aims at increasing the appeal of media or a product, to the detriment of, or without regard to, the interests of the women portrayed, or women in general. Concerns include the fact that all forms of media have the power to shape the population's perceptions and portray images of unrealistic stereotypical perceptions by portraying women either as submissive housewives or as sex objects.
The vast array of studies that have been conducted on the issue of the portrayal of women in the media have shown that women are often portrayed as irrational, fragile, not intelligent, submissive and subservient to men. According to a study, the way women are often portrayed by the media can lead to: "Women of average or normal appearance feeling inadequate or less beautiful in comparison to the overwhelming use of extraordinarily attractive women"; "Increase in the likelihood and acceptance of sexual violence"; "Unrealistic expectations by men of how women should look or behave"; "Psychological disorders such as body dysmorphic disorder, anorexia, bulimia and so on"; "The importance of physical appearance is emphasized and reinforced early in most girls' development.
While in many countries, the problem lies in the lack of adequate legislation, in others the principal problem is not as much the lack of a legal framework, but the fact is that most women do not know their legal rights. This is especially the case as many of the laws dealing with women's rights are of recent date. This lack of knowledge enables to abusers to lead the victims explicitly or implicitly to believe that their abuse is within their rights.
This may apply to a wide range of abuses, ranging from domestic violence to employment discrimination. Gender mainstreaming is described as the public policy of assessing the different implications for women and men of any planned policy action, including legislation and programmes , in all areas and levels, with the aim of achieving gender equality. The idea has been developed in the United Nations development community.
According to the Council of Europe definition: "Gender mainstreaming is the re organization, improvement, development and evaluation of policy processes, so that a gender equality perspective is incorporated in all policies at all levels and at all stages, by the actors normally involved in policy-making. An integrated gender mainstreaming approach is "the attempt to form alliances and common platforms that bring together the power of faith and gender-equality aspirations to advance human rights. The results reflect the parallels between the Convention and many tenets of Islamic scripture and practice.
This article may lend undue weight to gender inequalities of concern to women, and lacks views on inequalities of concern to men and to transgender people. Please help improve it by rewriting it in a balanced fashion that contextualizes different points of view. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Women's suffrage Muslim countries US. First Second Third Fourth. Variants general. Variants religious. By country. Lists and categories. Lists Articles Feminists by nationality Literature American feminist literature Feminist comic books.
Men's movement Mythopoetic men's movement Men's liberation movement Men's rights movement Fathers' rights movement Egalitarianism Intactivism Meninism. Topics and issues. Topics Sex differences in humans Human male sexuality Gender equality Misandry Hegemonic masculinity. Gender roles Machismo.
Gender studies Men's studies. Pro-feminism Anti-feminism. Violence against men. Genital mutilation Forced circumcision. Prison rape Male rape False accusation of rape. Homophobia Gay bashing Transphobia. Reproductive Rights Paternal rights and abortion No-fault divorce. Index of masculism topics Category:Men's movement Category:Men's organizations. See also. Airline sex discrimination policy controversy Boys are stupid, throw rocks at them!
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Main article: Shakers. Further information: Anti-discrimination laws. Further information: Timeline of women's legal rights other than voting. Main article: Special measures for gender equality in the United Nations. See also: Gender inequality. Further information: Gender disparities in health. Main article: Violence against women.
Further information: Transgender women. Main articles: Reproductive health and Reproductive rights. Further information: Forced sterilization , Forced pregnancy , and Forced abortion. Main articles: Forced marriage and Child marriage. Main article: Bride price. Main articles: Women in the workforce and Female economic activity. Main articles: Women's work and Gender role. See also: Effect of parental leave policies on gender equality. Further information: Freedom of movement. Main articles: Female education and Gender and education.
Main article: Women in government. Female head of government [b]. Female head of state [c]. Female head of state and female head of government. Further information: Gender role. Main article: Exploitation of women in mass media. Main article: Gender mainstreaming. This section may need to be rewritten to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards.